By Josephine Victoria Yam, J.D., LLM.

2019 February 21

Read time: 2.5 minutes

Many years ago, after a long summer holiday, I returned to work with inevitable nostalgia. I unpacked from my bag three wooden frames of our family’s recent holiday — and put them on my desk for easy viewing. And when colleagues dropped by my office and asked about the photos, I excitedly shared stories about our “fun under the sun” family holiday.

Until one day, a senior male colleague came over and counselled me: “Josephine, you may want to consider taking those family photos home. They give the impression that you’re not serious with your work. Take this as some friendly advice from an old fogy.” Stunned to hear that I should leave my personal life at home, I took home my family photos that evening. Talking about family stuff at the office was not deemed ”professional”. I would be seen as a mother first and lawyer second.

Years later, I learned that downplaying my being a wife and mom at work actually has a name. It’s called “covering”.

The term “covering” was coined by Erving Goffman in his book “Stigma”. It happens when "persons who are ready to admit possession of a stigma…may nonetheless make a great effort to keep the stigma from looming large."

And covering at the workplace happens more pervasively than we realize.

Like when a female employee always wears dark suits and downplays her interest in makeup to appear more masculine. Or when an LGBTQ employee does not bring his partner to office functions. Or when an employee of colour doesn’t correct people who make jokes about her ethnicity’s stereotypes. Or when an employee avoids associating with others diagnosed with depression like her to avoid being passed over for longer-term projects.

When employees cover at work, they downplay their uniqueness. They are pressured to conform to the dominant group. They bring only a slice of themselves, not their entire authentic selves, to work. They feel excluded, not included. They feel that they don’t belong.

Deloitte’s Report “Uncovering Talent: A New Model of Inclusion” notes that the act of covering detrimentally affects a company’s inclusion programs. And a company’s efforts of uncovering are vital to creating a strong culture of greater authenticity and inclusion.

“The ideal of inclusion has long been to allow individuals to bring their authentic selves to work. However, most inclusion efforts have not explicitly and rigorously addressed the pressure to conform that prevents individuals from realizing that ideal… Indeed, given that everyone has an authentic self, a culture of greater authenticity might benefit all individuals.”

The benefits flowing from a culture of greater authenticity and inclusion are well-known. In the Harvard Business Review article “Help Your Employees Be Themselves at Work”, authors Dorie Clark and Christie Smith observe:

“Enabling employees to feel comfortable being themselves could unlock dramatic performance gains because they can focus their attention on work, rather than hiding parts of themselves.”

When employees feel welcome and included in the workplace, they unleash their creative and innovative juices. They also become more engaged, more productive and more loyal to stay in their jobs for the long term. Their energy fuels the company to achieve greater competitive advantage.

There are many ways to help employees uncover their authentic selves.

By broadening the language of inclusion to include covering and uncovering.
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By sharing stories, especially from senior leaders, to show that it’s okay to uncover.
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By tracking hard data on hiring and promotions and making people across the company accountable for D&I.
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An employee quoted in Deloitte’s Report expresses the liberating power of uncovering so well:

“The energy I put into trying to behave differently than who I am drained my energy. Once I decided to bring my whole self to work, it was liberating and I became a lot more productive and successful.”

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Despite their rhetoric of being diversity and inclusion champions, many global companies still get into big trouble for bias and racism.

Like Starbucks whose store manager in Philadelphia had two Black men arrested for trespass while they were waiting for a friend. Or H&M which released an ad of a black child wearing a hoodie with the slogan “coolest monkey in the jungle”.

So how did Starbucks and H&M address these monumental fiascos?

Starbucks closed its 8,000 U.S. stores and 1,100 Canadian stores to provide its 100,000 + employees with compulsory diversity training. H&M provided diversity and anti-racism training to its marketing management teams globally.

But is diversity training enough to reduce bias?

At a conference last week, I met the Board Chair of a nonprofit organization dedicated to children diagnosed with chronic medical illnesses.

During our chat, she asked: "Can our nonprofit avail of B3’s free board matching services to recruit diverse board members?" “Certainly," I responded, "and what type of diversity is your board looking for?”

"All types of diversity, but especially age diversity” she admitted. “Can you imagine that our nonprofit serves children? And yet, none of our board members is below 60 years old!”

And there’s the rub. Hers is a comment we hear many times.

Many large corporations already provide their employees with diversity training. After all, they know that diversity and inclusion (D&I) is a source of competitive advantage. According to McKinsey, companies with strong D&I cultures perform better than their competitors. They're better in attracting top talent. Better in customer understanding. Better in employee engagement and retention.

But is diversity training enough to change employee behaviour?


  • Alberta's Promise operates within the Government of Alberta’s Department of Human Services. With over 1,800 business, nonprofit and community partners, they help businesses connect with non-profits across Alberta to make meaningful contributions that benefit children and youth ages 0 to 24.

  • CanadaHelps is a nonprofit serving Canadian charities and donors. They increase charitable giving across Canada by making it easier to donate and fundraise online. Because CanadHelps is a charity, their fees are a fraction of for-profit alternatives, making donation dollars go further.

  • The Edmonton Chamber of Voluntary Organizations is a member-based nonprofit organization founded in 2002 in Edmonton, AB. They serve the nonprofit and charitable organizations in the Alberta Capital Region.

  • The Ontario Nonprofit Network (ONN) is the provincial network for the approximately 55,000 nonprofit organizations across Ontario. As a 7,000-strong provincial network, with a volunteer base of 300 sector leaders, ONN brings the diverse voices of the sector to government, funders and business to create and influence systemic change.

  • For over 62 years, Propellus has been supporting volunteers and volunteerism within the communities of Calgary. It strongly believes that volunteering is essential to creating and sustaining healthy, supportive and connected communities.

  • The Sustainability Network is a national organization that works with environmental nonprofits to make them more effective and efficient. Their mission is to enrich environmental leaders and nonprofit organizations so that they can help us all achieve sustainability.

  • Founded in 1943, Vantage Point delivers learning opportunities focused on governance, leadership, planning and people engagement for new and seasoned sector leaders, board directors and managers, aimed at advancing not-for-profit leadership.

  • Women Get On Board is a leading member-based company that connects, promotes and empowers women to corporate boards. They do this through an engaged community of women and men in Canada committed to advancing gender diversity in the boardroom.


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